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Vol. 23. Issue 3.
Pages 250-256 (01 May 2019)
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Vol. 23. Issue 3.
Pages 250-256 (01 May 2019)
Original Research
DOI: 10.1016/j.bjpt.2018.08.013
Translation of the short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale into Brazilian Portuguese: cross-cultural adaptation and testing of measurement properties
Fabiana Foltran Mescollotto
Corresponding author

Corresponding author at: Postgraduate Program in Human Movement Sciences, Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia do Açúcar, Km 156, Bloco 7, Sala 37, Taquaral, CEP: 13400-911, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
, Ester Moreira de Castro, Elisa Bizetti Pelai, Adriana Pertille, Delaine Rodrigues Bigaton
Postgraduate Program in Human Movement Sciences, Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

  • Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version [SAS-SV] is now adapted into Brazilian Portuguese.

  • The Brazilian version of SAS-SV has good reliability and construct validity.

  • It is now possible to measure addition of smartphone use in Brazil.

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Tables (3)
Table 1. Item analysis and internal consistency in the SAS-SV for Brazilian university students (n=130) (item number; its statement in English and Brazilian Portuguese; mean and standard deviation (SD), corrected item-total correlation, and Cronbach's alpha if item deleted).
Table 2. Values for associations between the socio-demographic variables and SAS-SV categories (addicted and not addicted) and values for correlation between patterns of smartphone use and SAS-SV scores (n=130).
Table 3. Socio-demographic characteristics of sample (n=130).
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Additional material (1)

Smartphone use has been constantly increasing. Smartphone addiction can lead to changes in the emotional state and musculoskeletal system of users. To identify smartphone addicts, the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version was developed; however, this scale has not been translated into Brazilian Portuguese and tested for its measurement properties.


To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version into Brazilian Portuguese; to assess the internal consistency, reliability and construct validity of the scale among university students.


The cross-cultural adaptation was performed following the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures, and data were collected via online surveys administered to 59 university students over 18 years of age for test–retest. To test the measurement properties of the final version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version, a convenience sample including 130 university students was used.


The Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version showed good reliability for test–retest scores (ICC3,1=0.82; 95% CI=0.70–0.89) and good internal consistency considering all 10 items (Cronbach's alpha=0.95). The construct validity was calculated comparing the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version score to data from a questionnaire prepared by the authors of this study, including frequency per day (r=0.35; p<0.001), leisure time on the smartphone (r=0.33; p<0.001), and time working on the smartphone (r=0.18; p=0.04) that were significantly positively associated with higher Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version scores. The results show a high prevalence of smartphone addiction among university students (33.1%).


It can be concluded that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version is a reliable and valid tool for screening smartphone addiction in university students.

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Physical therapy


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