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Vol. 22. Num. 6.01 November 2018
Pages 435-526
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Vol. 22. Num. 6.01 November 2018
Pages 435-526
Original Research
DOI: 10.1016/j.bjpt.2018.05.003
Pectoralis minor muscle elongation and scapulothoracic motion do not differ in individuals with short versus typical resting pectoralis minor muscle length: a cross-sectional study
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David Ebaugha,
Corresponding author
debaugh@drexel.edu

Corresponding author at: Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Sciences Department, College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, 1601 Cherry Street, MS7-502, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA.
, Travis Pollena, Jason Mohringa, Kelly Gerrityb, Noel Goodstadta, Margaret Finleya
a Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Sciences Department, College of Nursing & Health Professions, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
b Benchmark Physical Therapy, Matthews, NC, USA
Highlights

  • Individuals in the short and typical resting PMm length groups had similar amounts of PMm elongation during active and passive lengthening procedures.

  • These groups also had similar amounts of PMm length change, and scapulothoracic motion during overhead arm motions.

  • These results support the need for further research to better understand how resting PMm length influences PMm elongation and scapulothoracic motion.

  • Findings from this study should not be applied to individuals with shoulder pain as the study participants were free from shoulder pain at the time of the study.

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Statistics
Figures (1)
Tables (4)
Table 1. Participant demographics (mean±SD).
Table 2. Pectoralis minor percent muscle length change (mean±SD).
Table 3. Comparison of group means and standard deviations (SD) for arm elevation tasks and scapular rotations.
Table 4. Comparison of pectoralis minor muscle length and index across studies.
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Abstract
Background

Individuals with short resting pectoralis minor muscle length have been shown to have aberrant scapulothoracic motion when compared to individuals with long resting pectoralis minor muscle length. However, the degree to which the pectoralis minor muscle can be lengthened and whether or not scapulothoracic motion differs between individuals with short and typical resting pectoralis minor muscle length is unknown.

Objectives

To determine if: (1) pectoralis minor muscle elongation (percent pectoralis minor muscle can be actively and passively lengthened beyond resting length), (2) pectoralis minor muscle percent length change during overhead reaching, and (3) scapulothoracic motion during overhead reaching differ between individuals with short and typical resting pectoralis minor muscle length.

Design

Two group comparison.

Methods

Thirty healthy individuals were placed into a short or typical resting pectoralis minor muscle length group. A caliper was used to measure resting pectoralis minor muscle length and pectoralis minor muscle length during active and passive muscle lengthening. An electromagnetic tracking system was used to measure pectoralis minor muscle length change as well as scapular, humeral, and trunk motion during several arm elevation tasks. Pectoralis minor muscle elongation and length change during arm elevation tasks were compared between groups using independent t-tests. Two-factor mixed-model analyses of variance were used to compare scapulothoracic motion at arm elevation angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120°.

Results

Pectoralis minor muscle elongation and pectoralis minor muscle length change during arm elevation did not differ between groups. Scapulothoracic motion did not differ between groups across arm elevation tasks.

Conclusions

Although resting pectoralis minor muscle length differed between groups, pectoralis minor muscle lengthening and scapulothoracic motion were similar between participants with short and typical resting pectoralis minor muscle length. Additional studies are needed to better understand the role of pectoralis minor muscle elongation on scapulothoracic motion.

Keywords:
Shoulder
Biomechanics
Flexibility

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