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Vol. 22. Issue 2.
Pages 95-174 (01 March 2018)
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Vol. 22. Issue 2.
Pages 95-174 (01 March 2018)
Original Research
DOI: 10.1016/j.bjpt.2017.09.004
Exercise training improves the IL-10/TNF-α cytokine balance in the gastrocnemius of rats with heart failure
Leonardo Calegaria,b, Ramiro B. Nunesa, Bruna B. Mozzaquattroa, Douglas D. Rossatoa, Pedro Dal Lagoa,c,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author at: Physical Therapy Dept., UFCSPA, Rua Sarmento Leite, 245/308, CEP: 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
a Laboratory of Physiology, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
b Faculty of Physical Education and Physical Therapy, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil
c Department of Physical Therapy, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

  • HF increases pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in gastrocnemius.

  • Exercise training reverses the atrophy of gastrocnemius induced by HF.

  • Exercise training increases IL-10 and decreases TNF-α level in gastrocnemius.

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Figures (1)
Tables (2)
Table 1. Body and muscle weights, morphometric cardiac characteristics, and pulmonary congestion in sham and HF rats after 8 weeks of exercise training.
Table 2. Hemodynamic characteristics in sham and HF rats after 8 weeks of exercise training.
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This study examined the effects of exercise training (ExT) upon concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the gastrocnemius of rats with heart failure (HF) induced by left coronary artery ligation.


Adult male Wistar rats submitted to myocardial infarction (MI) or sham surgery were randomly allocated into one of four experimental groups: trained HF (Tr-HF), sedentary HF (Sed-HF), trained sham (Tr-Sham) and sedentary sham (Sed-Sham). ExT protocol was performed on treadmill for a period of 8 weeks (60m/days, 5×/week, 16m/min), which started 6 weeks after MI. Cardiac hemodynamic evaluations of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and morphometric cardiac were used to characterize HF. The hemodynamic variables were recorded and gastrocnemius muscle was collected. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 protein levels were determined by multiplex bead array.


Sed-HF group presented increase of TNF-α level when compared with the Sed-Sham group (mean difference, MD 1.3; 95% confidence interval, CI −0.04 to 2.5). ExT reduced by 59% TNF-α level in Tr-HF group (MD −1.7; 95% CI −2.9 to −0.3) and increased IL-10 (MD 15; 95% CI 11–26) when compared with the Sed-HF group. Thus, the gastrocnemius muscle IL-10/TNF-α ratio was increased in Tr-HF rats (MD 15; 95% CI −8 to 47) when compared with the Sed-HF rats.


These results demonstrate that ExT not only attenuates TNF-α level but also improves the IL-10 cytokine level in skeletal muscle of HF rats.

Skeletal muscle
Exercise training
Myocardial infarction


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