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Vol. 23. Issue 2.
Pages 170-180 (01 March 2019)
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Vol. 23. Issue 2.
Pages 170-180 (01 March 2019)
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DOI: 10.1016/j.bjpt.2018.11.011
Exercise for the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: an evidence-based guide to the optimal prescription
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Robin M. Dalya,
Corresponding author
rmdaly@deakin.edu.au

Corresponding author at: Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood, Highway, Burwood, Melbourne, VIC, Australia 3215.
, Jack Dalla Viaa, Rachel L. Duckhama,c, Steve F. Frasera, Eva Wulff Helgeb
a Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia
b Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Section of Integrative Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
c Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Sciences (AIMSS), University of Melbourne and Western Health, St. Albans, Melbourne, Australia
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Tables (2)
Table 1. Peak vertical ground reaction forces (normalized to body weight) for a range of weight-bearing impact activities.a
Table 2. Exercise prescription recommendations for the prevention of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Adapted from Daly and Giangregorio.90,a
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Abstract
Background

Osteoporosis and related fragility fractures are a global public health problem in which pharmaceutical agents targeting bone mineral density (BMD) are the first line of treatment. However, pharmaceuticals have no effect on improving other key fracture risk factors, including low muscle strength, power and functional capacity, all of which are associated with an increased risk for falls and fracture, independent of BMD. Targeted exercise training is the only strategy that can simultaneously improve multiple skeletal and fall-related risk factors, but it must be appropriately prescribed and tailored to the desired outcome(s) and the specified target group.

Objectives

In this review, we provide an overview of the general principles of training and specific loading characteristics underlying current exercise guidelines for the prevention of osteoporosis, and an update on the latest scientific evidence with regard to the type and dose of exercise shown to positively influence bone mass, structure and strength and reduce fracture risk in postmenopausal women.

Keywords:
Exercise
Osteoporosis
Postmenopausal Women
Bone Mineral Density
Fracture
Physical Therapy

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